The product's manufacture and development by selecting media marketing and offering wholesale.
- product planning process
- production Planning for Profit Maximization
- product planning and management
- product planning in marketing management
RIGHT TO SAFETY
RIGHT TO BE INFORMED
RIGHT TO BE HEARD
RIGHT TO REDRESSSAL
RIGHT TO CONSUMMER EDUCATION
RIGHT TO HEALTHY ENVIRONMENT
RIGHT TO BASIC NEEDS
RIGHT TO CHOOSE
RIGHT TO PROTECTION
quyền được an toàn
quyền được thông báo
quyền được nghe
quyền được điều chỉnh, được khôi phục lại
quyền được hướng dẫn
quyền được đáp ứng môi trường sức khoẻ
quyền cơ bản cần được có cho mọi nhu cầu
quyền được lựa chọn
quyền được bào vệ
Warranties, Product Liability, and Consumer Law
WARRANTIES OF TITLE
Good Title: Except where disclaimed, sellers warrant that they have good and valid title to the goods being sold and that they may rightfully transfer title to the buyer.
Quiet Possession: A lessor transfers the rights to possess and use the goods during the lease term, not title to the goods, therefore lessors warrant only that no one has a superior right to possess or use the goods during the lease term.
No Liens: Except where disclaimed, sellers warrant that the goods they are selling are free of any liens – that is, any encumbrance on the goods to satisfy a debt or protect a claim for payment of a debt (e.g., a security interest on personal property or a mortgage on real property).
No Infringements: Except where disclaimed, merchant sellers and merchant lessors warrant that the goods delivered are free from any infringement claims by a third party.
Disclaimer: Any of the foregoing warranties can be disclaimed by specific language in a sales contract.
- To disclaim them in a lease contract, the language must be specific, written, and conspicuous.
Express Warranty: A seller’s or lessor’s oral or written promise, ancillary to an underlying sales or lease agreement, as to the quality, description, or performance of the goods being sold or leased.
- Under the UCC, express warranties arise when a seller indicates to the buyer that the goods
(1) conform to any affirmation or promise of fact about the goods made by the seller/lessor to the buyer/lessee,
(2) conform to any factual description of the goods made, e.g., on a label, packaging, or in a brochure, or
(3) conform to any sample or model of the goods shown to the buyer/lessee prior to purchase/lease.
- The affirmation, promise, description, sample, or model must:
- become part of the basis of the bargain between the seller/lessor and the buyer/lessee; and
- constitute more than a mere statement of opinion.
Implied Warranty: A warranty imposed by implication or inference from the nature of the transaction or the relative bargaining positions or circumstances of the parties.
- Merchantability: A warranty, arising in every sale or lease of goods by a merchant, that the goods being sold are,
(1) reasonably fit for the general purpose for which they are being sold,
(2) properly packaged and labeled, and
(3) of proper quality.
- Fitness for a Particular Purpose: A warranty, imposed on any seller/lessor who knows that the buyer/lessee is relying on the seller’s/lessor’s skill and judgment to select suitable goods, that the goods being sold or leased are fit for the particular purpose for which the buyer/lessee wishes to use the goods.
- The parties’ prior course of dealing or custom and usage in a particular industry or locale may also give rise to an implied warranty.
Express Warranty: Any oral or written express warranty may be disclaimed by a
(1) clear and conspicuous written disclaimer,
(2) which is called to the buyer’s attention
(3) when the contract is formed.
Implied Warranty of Merchantability: The disclaimer does not have to be written; however,
(1) it must specifically use the term “merchantability,” and,
(2) if it is written, it must be conspicuous.
Implied Warranty of Fitness: To disclaim an implied warranty of fitness for a particular purpose, the disclaimer must be
(1) written and
Waiver by Inspection or Failure to Inspect: If the buyer/lessee actually examines the goods as fully as desired before entering into the sales or lease contract, or if the buyer/lessee refuses to examine the goods at the seller’s/lessor’s request, there is no implied warranty with respect to defects that a reasonable examination did reveal or would reveal.
The Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act (MMWA) modifies UCC warranty rules with respect to consumer transactions. It does not require any seller to give a warranty for goods sold to a consumer; however, if the seller chooses to give an express warranty, and if the value of the goods sold is more than $10 the warranty must be labeled as “full” or “limited.”
(1) require free repair or replacement of any defective part; and,
(2) if the product cannot be repaired within a reasonable time, the consumer must have the choice of either a refund
- However, the warrantor need not perform warranty services if the product was damaged or unreasonably used by
- A full warranty generally has no time limit.
A limited warranty is any warranty that does not meet all of the requisites for a full warranty. If an express warranty is a limited warranty, that fact must be conspicuously designated.
The MMWA does not give rise to any implied warranties.
Product Liability: A manufacturer’s, seller’s, or lessor’s liability to consumers, users, and bystanders for physical harm or property damage that is caused by the goods.
Negligence: A manufacturer is liable for its failure to exercise due care to any person who sustained an injury proximately caused by the manufacturer’s negligence in
(1) designing the product,
(2) selecting materials (including any component products purchased from another seller that are incorporated into a finished product),
(3) using appropriate production processes,
(4) assembling and testing of the product, and
(5) placing adequate warnings on the product, which inform the user of dangers of which an ordinary person might not be aware.
Misrepresentation: A manufacturer may also be liable for any misrepresentations made to a consumer or user of its product if the misrepresentation causes the consumer or user to suffer some injury.
STRICT PRODUCT LIABILITY
Strict Liability: A manufacturer, seller, or lessor of goods will be liable, regardless of intent or the exercise of reasonable care, for any personal injury or property damage to consumers, users, and bystanders caused by the goods it manufactures, sells, or leases if:
(1) the product is defective when the defendant sells it (either to an end-user or to another seller for ultimate resale);
(2) the defendant is normally engaged in the business of selling or otherwise distributing the product in question;
(3) the product is unreasonably dangerous to the user or consumer because of its defective condition;
(4) the plaintiff suffers physical harm to self or property as a result of using or consuming the product;
(5) the defective condition of the product proximately causes the plaintiff’s harm; and
(6) the product had not been substantially changed between the time the defendant sold or otherwise distributed it and the time the plaintiff was injured.
Unreasonably Dangerous Product: A product so defective as to threaten a consumer’s health and safety either because
(1) the product is dangerous beyond the expectation of the ordinary consumer, or
(2) the manufacturer failed to produce an economically feasible, less dangerous alternative.
- Claims that a product is unreasonably dangerous generally fall into one of three categories:
(a) Manufacturing Flaw: The manufacturer failed to exercise due care in the manufacture, assembly, or testing of the product;
(b) Design Defect: The product, even if manufactured perfectly, is unreasonably dangerous as designed – often because an economically feasible, less dangerous alternative was not available to the manufacturer; and
(c) Inadequate Warning: The product, even if designed and manufactured perfectly, lacks adequate warnings or instructions for the consumer or other end user.
PRODUCT DEFECTS AND THE RESTATEMENT (THIRD) OF TORTS
Manufacturing Defects: The manufacturer, wholesaler, and retailer are strictly liable “when the product departs from its intended design even though all possible care was exercised in the preparation and marketing of the product.”
Design Defects: A product is defectively designed if
(1) the defendant or a predecessor in the chain of commercial distribution could have reduced or avoided a foreseeable risk of harm by adopting a reasonable alternative design, and
(2) the failure to adopt the alternative design renders the product “not reasonably safe.”
Warning Defects: A warning is defective if
(1) the foreseeable risks of harm posed by a product could have been reduced or avoided by providing reasonable warnings or instructions, and
(2) the omission of the warnings or instructions renders the product “not reasonably safe.”
MARKET SHARE LIABILITY
Generally, a plaintiff must prove that the defendant manufactured the defective product.
However, in some cases, plaintiffs have been permitted to sue any or all manufacturers of an allegedly defective product, even if the plaintiff does not know which of those manufacturers made the product that caused the plaintiff’s injuries.
In these cases, all of the product’s manufacturers (and, in some cases, distributors) may be held liable in proportion to each firm’s respective share of the market. For example, if a plaintiff suffered damages of $1 million, a named defendant whose market share during the relevant period was 10% would be liable to the plaintiff for $100,000 – even if the plaintiff sued manufacturers responsible for less than 100% of the market.
In some cases, courts have imposed market share liability on a defendant even though that defendant could affirmatively prove that it did not manufacture the product that caused the plaintiff’s injuries.
STATUTES OF LIMITATIONS AND REPOSE
Statute of Limitations: A typical statute of limitations requires that an action be brought within a specified period after the plaintiff’s cause of action accrued or within a specified period after the plaintiff discovered or should have discovered her injuries.
Statute of Repose: Regardless of whether a plaintiff has discovered her injuries, many states also have statutes of repose, which set absolute outer limits on the time within which an action must be brought.
OTHER PRODUCT LIABILITY DEFENSES
Assumption of Risk: The defendant must show that
(1) the plaintiff knew and appreciated the risk created by the alleged product defect, and
(2) the plaintiff voluntarily assumed the risk, even though it was unreasonable to do so.
Product Misuse: The defendant must show that
(1) the plaintiff was using the product in some way for which it was not designed, and
(2) the plaintiff’s misuse was not reasonably foreseeable to the defendant, such that the defendant would be required to safeguard against it.
Comparative Negligence: The defendant must show that the plaintiff’s own negligence or wrongful acts contributed to her injury. Such a showing may permit the plaintiff to recover only for the percentage of her injury or loss that was not caused by her own negligence or wrongful acts.
Commonly-Known Danger: The defendant must show that the plaintiff’s injury resulted from a danger so commonly known by the general public that the defendant had no duty to warn plaintiff.
Knowledgeable User: If a particular danger is or should be commonly known by particular users of the product, the manufacturer need not warn those particular users.
Deceptive Advertising: Advertising that misleads consumers, either by making unjustified claims regarding a product’s composition, qualities, sponsorship, or performance or by omitting a material fact concerning the product’s composition, qualities, sponsorship, or performance.
False Statements: Advertising that appears to be based on facts that are scientifically untrue is deceptive.
- Vague generalities or obvious exaggerations – collectively called puffery – are not deceptive.
Bait-and-Switch Advertising: Advertising one product (the “bait”) at a very attractive price, then informing the customer that the advertised product is either unavailable or of poor quality, convincing the customer to purchase a different, more expensive product (the “switch”).
Online Deceptive Advertising: The FTC has issued guidelines requiring that online advertising must
(1) be truthful and not misleading,
(2) not make any claims that cannot be substantiated,
(3) not cause or be likely to cause substantial consumer injury that consumers cannot reasonably avoid, and
(4) clearly and conspicuously disclose any qualifying or limiting information.
If, after investigating, the FTC staff determines that an advertisement is unfair or deceptive, it will send a formal complaint to the advertiser. If the advertiser refuses to settle the complaint, the FTC can conduct an administrative hearing. If the staff proves its case, the FTC may
issue a cease-and-desist order, requiring the advertiser to stop the unfair or deceptive advertisement,
impose a multiple product order, requiring the advertiser to cease and desist from falsely advertising all of the firm’s products or services, and
require the advertiser to counteradvertise (i.e., retract and correct its prior unfair or deceptive advertisement).
TELEMARKETING AND ELECTRONIC ADVERTISING
Telephone Consumer Protection Act prohibits
(1) telephone solicitation using an automatic dialing system or a prerecorded voice, and
(2) transmitting ads via fax without first obtaining the recipient’s permission.
FTC Telemarketing Sales Rule requires a telemarketer to initially inform the recipient of the seller’s name and the product being sold. In addition, the telemarketer must
(1) refrain from misrepresenting information,
(2) inform those they call of (a) the total cost of the goods being sold, (b) any restrictions on obtaining or using the goods, and (c) whether a sale will be considered final and nonrefundable, and
(3) remove a consumer’s name from its contact list if the customer requests it to do so.
- The FTC created a national “Do Not Call” Registry, effective October 2003.
LABELING AND PACKAGING
Fair Packaging and Labeling Act: Federal law requiring that product labels identify
(1) the product,
(2) the net quantity of the contents,
(3) the manufacturer,
(4) the packager or distributor, and,
(5) if the package contains foodstuffs, various nutritional information.
Other federal labeling and packaging laws include:
- The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act,
- The Comprehensive Smokeless Tobacco Health Education Act,
- The Wool Products Labeling Act, and
- The Flammable Fabrics Act.
DECEPTIVE SALES PRACTICES
Regulation Z: Federal Reserve regulation governing credit terms of sales contracts.
“Cooling Off” Laws: Laws that permit consumers a period of time after making a purchase from a door-to-door salesperson in which to cancel the sale and obtain a refund. In addition to various state cooling-off laws, the FTC also regulates door-to-door sales.
State and federal laws and regulations also govern the following types of consumer transactions:
- telephone and mail-order sales,
- used vehicle sales,
- funeral planning and handling, and
- real estate sales and lending.
CONSUMER HEALTH AND SAFETY
Food and Drug Safety: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) protects consumers against adulterated and misbranded food and drugs, regulates food quality, food additives, and food classifications, approves all prescription and over-the-counter drugs before they may be sold to the public, and has the authority to “pull” food and drugs from public distribution.
Consumer Product Safety: The Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) conducts research on product safety, maintains a clearinghouse of information on the risks associated with various products, sets standards for product safety, and may ban the manufacture and sale of products it deems to be unduly hazardous to consumers.
TRUTH IN LENDING
Truth in Lending Act (TILA): Federal law requiring that all terms of a credit instrument be clearly and conspicuously disclosed, and permitting the consumer to rescind, or cancel, any credit contract if the creditor fails to comply with the TILA’s requirements.
Equal Credit Opportunity Act: Prohibits the denial of credit solely on the basis of race, religion, national origin, color, gender, age, or marital status.
Credit Card Rules: TILA
(1) limits a cardholder’s liability for unauthorized charges made before the cardholder notifies the creditor that a card has been lost or stolen to $50 per card,
(2) prohibits credit card companies from billing a consumer for unauthorized charges on a card improperly issued by the company, and
(3) outlines specific procedures for both the consumer and the credit card company for resolving billing disputes.
Consumer Leasing Act: Protects consumers who lease automobiles and other goods by requiring lessors to disclose in writing all of the material terms of the lease.
FAIR CREDIT REPORTING
Fair Credit Reporting Act: Permits consumer credit reporting agencies to issue credit reports only under certain circumstances, requires creditors to inform the consumer if credit has been denied because of information on the consumer’s credit report, and provides the consumer with mechanisms by which to request a copy of her credit report and to challenge information contained therein.
The 2003 Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act
(1) established a national fraud alert system,,
(2) requires major credit reporting agencies to provide consumers with a free copy of their credit reports every 12 months,
(3) requires credit card receipts to truncate the customer’s full name and account number,
(4) mandates that financial institutions cooperate with the FTC to identify key identity theft indicators and develop rules for disposing of sensitive credit data, and
(5) allows consumers to report identify theft directly to creditors.
FAIR DEBT COLLECTION
Fair Debt Collection Practices Act: Limits the means by which collection agencies (including attorneys’ who regularly try to obtain payment of consumer debts through legal process) may collect from consumers. The Act prohibits:
(1) contacting the debtor at her place of employment, unless the debtor’s employer acquiesces,
(2) contacting the debtor during inconvenient or unusual times, or at any time after the debtor is represented by an attorney,
(3) contacting third parties not related to the debtor, excluding the debtor’s financial adviser, about payment,
(4) harassing or intimidating the debtor, or employing false or misleading information against the debtor, and
(5) communicating with a debtor, other than to advise her that the matter has been referred to a collection agency, after she has informed the company that she refuses to pay the debt.
Ch. 13: Warranties, Product Liability, and Consumer Law
No. 24 Business Law Today: The Essentials (7th ed.)